George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll (S), 1st Duke of Argyll (UK), KG, KT, PC, FRS, FRSE (1823-1900)
George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll (S) and 1st Duke of Argyll (UK), John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll, FRS, FRSE and his second wife Joan Glassel (d. 22 Jan 1828), only dau. and hrss. of John Glassel, of Long Niddry, East Lothian, by his wife Helen Buchan, dau. of John Buchan of Letham. He was styled Lord Campbell from 30 April 1823 - 27 May 1837, and was styled Marquess of Lorne from 27 May 1837 - 25 April 1847., was the second and only surving son, of
George Campbell 8th Duke of Argyll was a British polymath and statesman. He made a significant geological discovery in the 1850s when his tenant found fossilized leaves embedded among basalt lava on the Island of Mull. He also helped to popularize ornithology and was one of the first to give a detailed account of the principles of bird flight in the hopes of advancing artificial aerial navigation (i.e. flying machines). In 1866, he was a founding member of the world's first aeronautical society, the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later renamed the Royal Aeronautical Society) and served as its president from 1866 to 1895. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1869. In 1886, he was elected as a member to the American Philosophical Society. His literary output was extensive writing on topics varying from science and theology to economy and politics. He was a pallbearer at the funeral of Charles Darwin in 1882.
He was widely considered to be one of the greatest gifted minds of the 19th century, comparable in genius to Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin of the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Selected Major Publications:
(1867) The Reign of Law. London: Strahan. (5th Ed. in 1868).
(1869) Primeval Man: An Examination of some Recent Speculations. New York: Routledge.
(1873) President's Anniversary Address. Proceedings of the Geological Society. pp. li - lxxviii.
(1879) The Eastern Question. London: Strahan.
(1884) The Unity of Nature. New York: Putnam.
(1887) Scotland As It Was and As It Is.
(1893) The Unseen Foundations of Society. An Examination of the Fallacies and Failures of Economic Science Due to Neglected Elements. London: John Murray.
(1896) The Philosophy of Belief; Or, Law in Christian Theology.
(1898) Organic Evolution Cross-Examined.
(1906) Autobiography and Memoirs. London: John Murray
By the mid-1840's, the Duke of Argyll had already obtained prominence as a writer of pamphlets on the 1843 Disruption of the Church of Scotland, which he strove to avert. In addition to this, he served prominently in the administrations of Lord Aberdeen, Lord Palmerston, John Russell, and William Gladstone. In politics he was considered a Peelite (a free trade branch of the British Conservative Party) until 1855, a Liberal from 1885 to 1886 and thereafter a Liberal Unionist. He was a frequent and eloquent speaker in the House of Lords and a close associate of Prince Albert. He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.
Such was the 8th Duke of Argyll's standing in court, that Princess Louise, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, announced in 1871 that she wished to marry John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, heir to the Dukedom of Argyll. No marriage between a daughter of a monarch and a British subject had been given official recognition since 1515. Queen Victoria personally approved of the match and defended her daughter's choice within the Royal family and over objections from royal courts in Denmark, Prussia, and Austria who sought to marry into the British Royal family. She was convinced this marriage would strengthen the royal family morally and physically.
The 8th Duke of Argyll was a major catalyst of the Education (Scotland) Act of 1872. Under his leadership in 1866, the Argyll Commission looked into the Scottish schooling system and found it severely inadequate. The report – eventually finished in 1869 – was used to call for education reforms. As a result of this lobbying, the Education Act (Scotland) 1872 was passed making primary school education mandatory in Scotland for all children between 5 and 13 years old.
Married: (1) Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Sutherland-Leveson-Gower was the daughter of George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland and Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard. She married George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, son of John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll and Joan Glassel, on 31 July 1844 at Trentham, Staffordshire, England.
From 31 July 1844, her married name became Campbell. After her marriage, Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Sutherland-Leveson-Gower was styled as Duchess of Argyll on 25 April 1847. She held the office of Mistress of the Robes to HM Queen Victoria between December 1868 and January 1870. She was appointed Lady, Royal Order of Victoria and Albert (V.A.). She was awarded the Imperial Order of the Crown of India (C.I.).
Born: 30 May 1824
Died: 25 May 1878
Children by first wife:
1. Lord John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, later 9th Duke of Argyll
2. Capt Lord Archibald Campbell (b. 18 Dec 1846; d. 29 Mar 1913), married: 12 Jan 1869 Janey Sevilla Callander (d. 15 Jul 1923), 3rd dau. of James Henry Callander of Craigforth and Ardkinglas, and had issue:
1a. Niall Diarmid Campbell, later 10th Duke of Argyll
2a. Lady Elspeth Angela Campbell, granted the style and precedence of the daughter of a Duke by Royal Warrant 22 Aug 1914 (b. 2 Nov 1873; d. 28 Oct 1942)
3. Lord Walter Campbell (b. 30 Jul 1848; d. 2 May 1889), married: 14 Apr 1874 Olivia Rowlandson Milns (married: (2) 14 Jun 1890 Allan Gordon; d. 17 Aug 1892), only dau. of John Clarkson Milns, of Asory House, Bute, and had issue:
1a. Douglas Walter Campbell (b. 6 Mar 1877; d. 5 Jan 1926), married: (1) 28 Nov 1899 Aimee Marie Suzanne Lawrence (d. 9 Feb 1920), dau. of John Lawrence, of New York, USA, and (2) 17 Jun 1920 Lilian Elizabeth Lutley Morgan (widow of Harington Morgan, of Khartoum; d. 8 Apr 1957), and only dau. of Philip Lutley Sclater, of Odiham Priory, Hampshire, and had issue by his first wife:
1b. Ian Douglas Campbell, later 11th Duke of Argyll
1b. Lilah Olive Campbell (b. 10 Oct 1875; d. 6 Jul 1960)
4. Lt Lord George Granville Campbell, Royal Navy, (b. 25 Dec 1850; d. 21 Apr 1915), married: 8 May 1879 Sybil Lascelles Alexander (d. 1 May 1947), only child of James Bruce Alexander, and had issue
5. Lord Colin Campbell MP (b. 9 Mar 1853; dsp. 19 Jun 1895), married: 21 Jul 1881 (div. 1884) Gertrude Elizabeth Blood (dsp. 2 Nov 1911), 2nd dau. of Edmund Maghlin Blood, of Brickhill, co. Clare
1. Lady Edith Campbell (b. 7 Nov 1849; d. 6 Jul 1913), married: 23 Dec 1868 Henry George [Percy], 7th Duke of Northumberland, and had issue
2. Lady Elizabeth Campbell (b. 14 Feb 1852; d. 24 Sep 1896), married: 17 Jul 1880 Lt Col Edward Harrison Clough-Taylor, of Firby Hall, co. York (d. 1 Apr 1921), son of Edward Clough-Taylor, of Kirkham Abbey, co. York, and had issue
3. Lady Victoria Campbell (b. 22 May 1854; d. 6 Jul 1910)
4. Lady Evelyn Campbell (b. 17 Aug 1855; dsp. 22 Mar 1940), married: 10 Aug 1886 James Baillie-Hamilton (dsp. 28 May 1921), 4th son of Adm William Alexander Baillie-Hamilton, by his wife Lady Harriet Hamilton, only dau. of Lord James Hamilton, styled Viscount Hamilton
5. Lady Frances Campbell (b. 22 Feb 1858; d. 25 Feb 1931), married: 12 May 1879 Eustace James Anthony Balfour (d. 14 Feb 1911), 5th son of James Maitland Balfour, of Whittinghame, East Lothian, by his wife Lady Blanche Mary Harriet Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd dau. by his first wife of James Brownlow William Cecil (later Gascoyne-Cecil), 2nd Marquess of Salisbury, and had issue
6. Lady Mary Emma Campbell (b. 22 Sep 1859; d. 22 Mar 1947), married: 4 Jul 1882 Rt Rev Hon Edward Carr Glyn DD, Bishop of Peterborough (b. 21 Nov 1843; d. 14 Nov 1926), 8th son of George Carr [Glyn], 1st Baron Wolverton, by his wife Marianne Grenfell, dau. of Pascoe Grenfell MP, of Taplow House, co. Buckingham, and had issue
7. Lady Constance Harriet Campbell (b. 11 Nov 1864; d. 9 Feb 1922), married: 27 Jun 1891 Charles Emmot, of North Bailey, Durham (d. 18 Feb 1910), son of Thomas Emmott, of Brookfield, Oldham, co. Lancaster, and had issue
Married: (2) 13 Aug 1881 Amelia Maria Anson (b. c. 1844; widow of Col Hon Archibald Henry Augustus Anson, 3rd son of Thomas William [Anson], 1st Earl of Lichfield; d. 4 Jan 1894), sister of Sir Gilbert Henry Claughton, 1st Bt., and 1st dau. of Rt Rev Thomas Legh Claughton DD, Bishop of St Albans, by his wife Hon Julia Susanna Ward, 1st dau. of William Humble [Ward], 10th Baron Ward. Without issue.
Married: (3) 30 Jul 1895 Ina Erskine McNeill VA, Extra Lady of the Bedchamber and Private Secretary to Queen Victoria (d. 24 Dec 1925), 2nd dau. of Archibald McNeill of Colonsay, by his wife Christina Mitchell, dau. of Col St Leger Mitchell. Without issue.
Created: 7 Apr 1892 Duke of Argyll (Peerage of the United Kingdom)
Born: 30 Apr 1823, Ardencaple Castle, Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Died: 24 Apr 1900, Inverary Castle, Argyllshire, Scotland
Tenure: 25 April 1847 - 24 April 1900 (53 years, 0 days)
Titles and Honors: He succeeded as the Chief of the Honorable Clan Campbell, Mac Cailein Mór on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 18th Lord Campbell [S., 1445] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 17th Earl of Argyll [S., 1457] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 17th Lord Lorne [S., 1470] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 11th Lord of Kintyre [S., 1626] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 10th Baronet Campbell, of Lundy in Angus, co. Forfar [N.S., 1627] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 8th Duke of Argyll [S., 1701] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 8th Marquess of Kintyre and Lorn [S., 1701] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 8th Earl of Campbell and Cowall [S., 1701] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 8th Viscount of Lochow and Glenyla [S., 1701] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 8th Lord of Inverary, Mull, Morvern and Tiree [S., 1701] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 5th Baron Hamilton of Hameldon, co. Leicester [G.B., 1776] on 25 April 1847.
He succeeded as the 4th Baron Sundridge, of Coomb Bank, Kent [G.B., 1766] on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of Keeper of the Great Seal [Scotland] on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of Keeper of Dunstaffnage, Carrick, Tarbert and Dunoon Castles on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of Hereditary Grand Master of the Royal Household [Scotland] on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of Admiral of the Western Coasts and the Isles on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of High Sheriff of Argyllshire on 25 April 1847.
He held the office of Chancellor of St. Andrews University between 1851 and 1900.
He was appointed Fellow, Royal Society (F.R.S.) on 19 June 1851.
He held the office of Lord Privy Seal between 1852 and 1855.
He was appointed Privy Counsellor (P.C.) on 4 January 1853.
He held the office of Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow between 1854 and 1856.
He held the office of Postmaster-General between 1855 and 1858.
He was appointed Knight, Order of the Thistle (K.T.) on 2 May 1856.
He held the office of Lord Privy Seal between 1859 and 1866.
He was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law (LL.D.) by Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, in 1862.
He was an Elder Brother of the Trinity House 1862-1900.
He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire between 1862 and 1900.
He held the office of Secretary of State for India between 1868 and 1874.
He was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Laws (D.C.L.) by Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, in 1870.
He founded the Argyll Gathering and Ball in 1871.
He held the office of Lord Privy Seal between 1880 and 1881.
He was appointed Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 22 October 1883 and was able to retain his membership of the Order of the Thistle.
He wrote the book The Reign of Law.
He was created 1st Duke of Argyll [U.K.] on 7 August 1892.
Preceded by: father John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll, FRS, FRSE
Succeeded by: eldest son by first wife John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll (S), 2nd Duke of Argyll (UK)